grinding the bevel – the mechanical approach
There are two basic techniques – the first method I’ll describe is the one frequently described in old woodworking literature (you can read about the basic principles of sharpening edge tools in the previous post).
You start by using a mechanical grinder with a circular grind stone to establish a bevel on the tip of the blade – the angle formed between the face and the bevel is usually about 25°.
As shown in this illustration from Planecraft 1)by C W Hampton and E Clifford, of C &J Hampton ltd, first published in 1934. Hampton Ltd were the makers of Record planes. cap irons manufactured by Record have this angle marked on them as a reference.
After you have established the primary bevel you go on to hone on a sharpening stone at a slightly higher angle (usually around 30° ). This creates a secondary bevel and can be done by registering the ground edge on the abrasive and then tipping the blade forward a couple of degrees. As will be explained in a subsequent post, the actual angle is not important so long as it is around 30°, but if you are not confident to hold the blade steady then you can use a honing guide, and this is what I did this until I got used to holding the blade at the correct angle.
The blade can be honed in this way several times, and each time you do this the secondary bevel gets wider. Tradesmen would regrind the blade frequently because, as the secondary bevel enlarges, more metal must be removed each time to remove the wear on the edge, and the longer the honing takes.
Of course it is not necessary to use a grinder to establish the primary bevel, you can use sandpaper or sharpening stones of some description, although I imagine the grinder is a lot quicker, particularly if you have an electric one. I am only guessing though, since my few attempts at using my tiny hand-grinder were rather hamfisted and slow, and I was only just getting the knack of holding the iron at the right angle and winding the handle at the same time when one of the gears inside it broke.
The advantage of using the traditional approach is time saving – if you have a powered grinder (or a can call upon an apprentice to do the winding of a hand cranked one) then you are able to reduce the time spent honing by using the grinder to remove a lot of metal quickly.
A note of caution on using mechanical grinders: the hardness of steel can be permanently reduced at surprising low temperatures, so you need to be careful not to overheat the iron else you might effect its ability to keep an edge 2)“tempering” is the technical term for the heat treatment used to reduce the hardness of metal alloys. The blacksmith would aim to get a good balance of properties in the tool – Too hard and it will be brittle and difficult to sharpen ; too soft and it will not retain an edge for long. The temper of steel starts to change at around 350°F and this is before there are any visible changes to the colour of the metal to give you a clue about what is happening. If the tip of your blade turns light blue after grinding, then it has reached 650°F and you have got it far too hot (650°F is the temper used when creating springs, for instance.
Note although I say above this effect is “permanent”, it may be that only the tip is softened in which case it can just be ground off to get back to good metal. A more radical approach is to re-harden the whole blade, however, this involves heating up the metal to an extremely high temperature which would normally involve special equipment (a furnace) , but can apparently be done with a barbeque and hairdryer. As you can probably guess from the description this is not for the fainthearted!).
Here are some extracts from the literature published in the 18th, 19th and 20th century where this approach to sharpening is described.
A variation on the theme described above involves grinding the primary bevel at 30 degrees using a grinding wheel. Because the bevel takes on the shape of the wheel you will end up with a convenient hollow on the bevel between the toe and the heel, and these two thin edges form a useful reference surface that help set the iron at exactly the intended angle for your honing work. As with the method above, if you regrind frequently your time spent honing will be reduced as you will need to only remove metal from the very toe and heel of the bevel.
The “Paul Sellers” method
There is another way, which eschews the use of a grinder altogether. I have put the name for this approach in quotes, since Paul Sellers does not claim to have invented it – it is just the method he learned as an apprentice in the 1960s, and – so far as he is aware – has been used forever and a day. He has prepared a number of very helpful videos explaining how he goes about sharpening, and since the method has become popularly associated with his name in some circles, I will continue to borrow his name here.
The basic idea is to grind the entire bevel on a coarse sharpening stone, creating a gradual rounded bevel starting somewhere around 25° at the heel and ending around 30° at the toe, and then to subsequently hone the entire bevel to a finer surface.
The result is you are progressively grinding a small amount at each sharpening session.
This is the approach I ended up using for all my edge tools now and, as you will see if you give it ago, it is very easy to master and can be done with a minimal amount of equipment and fuss. Judging by the number of old planes and chisels that I have bought with the tell-tale rounded bevel (nearly all of them) then I would guess that this is what many other people concluded also.
You may still want to resort to a powered grinder if you chip or otherwise damage an edge but, by and large, your sharpening activity will consist almost entirely of rubbing the iron up and down on various sharpening stones and will thus be pleasingly low on faff.
Here is a video of Mr Sellers sharpening a plane iron:
In the interest of balance, I should note that I have come across one or two sniffy comments in the literature that caution against creating a curved bevel, here is Mr Hampton again:
Although not explained in Planecraft, I believe the reason for this admonishment is that if you rock the blade in a way that rounds over the cutting edge then you will eventually create a rounded bevel that touches the surface of the wood before the cutting edge. The problems that result vary from preventing the plane cutting at all to having it only work when you push down hard onto the surface being planed – the downward pressure compresses the wood fibres under the bevel such that the cutting edge can reach the wood, however, unless you can keep up exactly the right pressure during the stroke the plane will eventually be pushed up and skid along without cutting or take an uneven shaving.
You do have to be careful to avoid rounding-over like this when you are sharpening. What you are trying to achieve is an action where you remove more material from the heel of the bevel than the toe. It is a bit hard to explain but pretty obvious when you try it.
Here is a pic illustrating the situation you want to avoid:
anyhow, all these methods works so pick one you like and get sharpening! In the next thrilling episode we will discuss honing.
References [ + ]
|1.||↑||by C W Hampton and E Clifford, of C &J Hampton ltd, first published in 1934. Hampton Ltd were the makers of Record planes.|
|2.||↑||“tempering” is the technical term for the heat treatment used to reduce the hardness of metal alloys. The blacksmith would aim to get a good balance of properties in the tool – Too hard and it will be brittle and difficult to sharpen ; too soft and it will not retain an edge for long. The temper of steel starts to change at around 350°F and this is before there are any visible changes to the colour of the metal to give you a clue about what is happening. If the tip of your blade turns light blue after grinding, then it has reached 650°F and you have got it far too hot (650°F is the temper used when creating springs, for instance|